The conviction that nothing bad can happen to us often makes us not ready for problems. But it would be better to replace hope for luck by knowledge of the rules and training of skills that will be useful in an emergency situation.
We memorized the instructions issued by the institutions that make up the state emergency system and the clear instructions of a professional firefighter on how to behave if you face an emergency in a public place where there are many people and now we want to show them to you.
1. Find out which of the exits you should use.
Therefore, if you see smoke or flames coming out, you smell burning, hear the fire alarm and you notice that people leave the building, go quickly to the main exit, exit through the parking lot or any other exit, if you are sure that it is open. It is better not to use the stairs: the exit to the street is often closed, you will find yourself trapped. If the crowd goes there, it will cause a stampede, the ladder will be filled with poisonous products of combustion and there will be no way out.
If the panic starts and you can not leave the building immediately, try to get away from the crowd into any free space and watch the people moving towards the stairwells move. If there is not a traffic jam in the entrance, then the exit is open, follow the others.
Pay attention to the parking area. The parking lot is another fire compartment (part of the building, separated from other parts by fire walls), its emergency exits and car exits lead directly to the street and are not connected to the aerial part of the building. Do not use the car, go on foot.
In no case should you use elevators.
2. Follow the rules of conduct in the crowd.
If you are in a crowd, move in the same direction to the main stream of people. Cross your arms over your chest, place your elbows forward and hold your shoulders with your hands: this will give you the opportunity to breathe in the stampede.
If you have a baby, take it in your arms. The best posture is a "reserve parachute": your arms hug your neck, your legs are at your waist. If you are with another adult, he should lean against your back, holding your belt or placing your arms around your waist. In extreme cases, chain the elbows. If they were lost, do not stop and do not resist the current of the crowd, they will meet outside.
Carefully avoid obstacles such as corners or columns trying to detect them in advance.
If you fall, firmly grasp the nearest person by the legs or clothes and get up off the ground.
3. In extreme circumstances, go to the bathroom.
If you did not make it out, use the bathroom. Leave your clothes on the handle of the entrance door: tie the scarf or hang the jacket. For firefighters, this is a sign that there is someone inside.
Then open the taps, wet the clothes and all the things with which you can cover the slots of the door. Wet them without stopping with water and wait for the firemen.
4. Use the windows correctly.
It makes sense to use the windows as an exit if you are not taller than the third floor of a building with a ceiling height of up to 3 meters or the second floor in a shopping center. A jump from the height of more than 5 m is very dangerous, but up to 9 m, the probability of surviving is quite high. If it is higher - there is no possibility.
It makes sense to jump from the third floor window (second in the mall) if you are a healthy adult. There is a good chance that you will break your legs, but you will remain alive. Children, the elderly and pregnant women will not survive such a jump. You must not help them jump.
If you're going to jump, it's best to shorten the distance to the ground and hang yourself with your arms outstretched on the window sill, keep your legs semi-flexed and try to fall sideways after touching the ground. If you fall on a piece of cloth spread below, try to fall on your back, not your legs.
If you have a ventilation box underneath, move so that the trajectory of your fall does not cross with it.
If you are on the third floor (second floor in the mall):
Try to get attention by shaking light colored clothes. Do not open the window if you can breathe inside. An open window will increase the suction of the air and the room will quickly fill with smoke and products of combustion. The flame spreads with great speed towards the open spaces.
In a room full of smoke, it is better to look out the window as much as possible, and if you have a wide window sill, then sit outside and wait for them to help you.
5. In a room full of smoke, navigate the walls.
In most cases, during fires, people do not die from fire, but from smoke saturated with poisonous combustion gases. The first rule to leave a room in flames or full of smoke is to apply a damp cloth on the face that will serve as a filter. If there is no water at hand, urinate on the clothes (scarf, blouse, skirt hem) and breathe through it. Teach children that in this situation it is nothing shameful. It can save your life.
In a room full of smoke, go to the exit guiding you through the walls, so as not to lose your orientation. Move by dragging or bending, as the smoke rises and at the level of the floor you can breathe more easily.
6. If your clothes are on fire, throw yourself to the ground and roll.
If your clothes are on fire, under no circumstances should you run, since the fire will spread even faster. Observe the "stop, fall, roll" rule. The horizontal position will keep the head and hair safe, since the flame is always rising and rolling on the ground will quickly extinguish it. If another person's clothes are burning, you have to cover them with something thick, like a carpet or a coat.
Do you know the rules of behavior in emergency situations? Do you teach them to your children?